数理人口学・数理生物学セミナー

過去の記録 ~11/11次回の予定今後の予定 11/12~


2019年10月17日(木)

14:00-16:00   数理科学研究科棟(駒場) 052号室
Merlin C. Koehnke 氏 (Institute of Environmental Systems Research, School of Mathematics/Computer Science, Osnabrueck University) 14:00-15:00
Complex spatiotemporal dynamics in a simple predator-prey model (ENGLISH)
[ 講演概要 ]
A simple reaction-diffusion predator-prey model with Holling type IV functional response
and logistic growth in the prey is considered. The functional response can be interpreted as
a group defense mechanism, i.e., the predation rate decreases with resource density when the
prey density is high enough [1]. Such a mechanism has been described in diverse biological
interactions [2,3]. For instance, high densities of filamentous algae can decrease filtering
rates of filter feeders [4].
The model will be described and linked to plankton dynamics. Nonspatial considerations reveal that the zooplankton may go extinct or coexistence (stationary or oscillatory) between
zoo- and phytoplankton may emerge depending on the choice of parameters. However,
including space, the dynamics are more complex. In particular, spatiotemporal irregular
oscillations can rescue the predator from extinction. These oscillations can be characterized
as spatiotemporal chaos. The results provide a simple mechanism not only for the emergence
of inhomogeneous plankton distributions [5] but also for the occurrence of chaos in plankton communities [6]. Possible underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon will be discussed.
References
[1] Freedman, H. I., Wolkowicz, G. S. (1986). Predator-prey systems with group defence: the
paradox of enrichment revisited. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 48(5-6), 493–508.
[2] Tener, J. S.. Muskoxen in Canada: a biological and taxonomic review. Vol. 2. Dept. of Northern
Affairs and National Resources, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1965.
[3] Holmes, J. C. (1972). Modification of intermediate host behaviour by parasites. Behavioural
aspects of parasite transmission.
[4] Davidowicz, P., Gliwicz, Z. M., Gulati, R. D. (1988). Can Daphnia prevent a blue-green algal
bloom in hypertrophic lakes? A laboratory test. Limnologica. Jena, 19(1), 21–26.
[5] Abbott, M., 1993. Phytoplankton patchiness: ecological implicationsand observation methods.
In: Levin, S.A., Powell, T.M., Steele, J.H.(Eds.), Patch Dynamics. Lecture Notes in Biomathematics, vol. 96. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 37–49.
[6] Beninc`a, E. et al. (2008). Chaos in a long-term experiment with a plankton community. Nature,
451(7180), 822.
Horst Malchow 氏 (Institute of Environmental Systems Research, School of Mathematics/Computer Science, Osnabrueck University) 15:00-16:00
Functional response of competing populations to environmental variability (ENGLISH)
[ 講演概要 ]
The possible control of competitive invasion by infection of the invader and multiplicative
noise is studied. The basic model is the Lotka-Volterra competition system with emergent
carrying capacities. Several stationary solutions of the non-infected and infected system are
identi ed as well as parameter ranges of bistability. The latter are used for the numerical
study of di usive invasion phenomena. The Fickian di usivities, the infection but in particular the white and colored multiplicative noise are the control parameters. It is shown
that not only competition, possible infection and mobilities are important drivers of the
invasive dynamics but also the noise and especially its color and the functional response of
populations to the emergence of noise.
The variability of the environment can additionally be modelled by applying Fokker-Planck
instead of Fickian di usion. An interesting feature of Fokker-Planck di usion is that for spatially varying di usion coecients the stationary solution is not a homogeneous distribution.
Instead, the densities accumulate in regions of low di usivity and tend to lower levels for
areas of high di usivity. Thus, the stationary distribution of the Fokker-Planck di usion can
be interpreted as a re
ection of di erent levels of habitat quality [1-5]. The latter recalls the
seminal papers on environmental density, cf. [6-7]. Appropriate examples will be presented.
References
[1] Bengfort, M., Malchow, H., Hilker, F.M. (2016). The Fokker-Planck law of diffusion and
pattern formation in heterogeneous media. Journal of Mathematical Biology 73(3), 683-704.
[2] Siekmann, I., Malchow, H. (2016). Fighting enemies and noise: Competition of residents
and invaders in a stochastically fluctuating environment. Mathematical Modelling of Natural
Phenomena 11(5), 120-140.
[3] Siekmann, I., Bengfort, M., Malchow, H. (2017). Coexistence of competitors mediated by
nonlinear noise. European Physical Journal Special Topics 226(9), 2157-2170.
[4] Kohnke, M.C., Malchow, H. (2017). Impact of parameter variability and environmental noise
on the Klausmeier model of vegetation pattern formation. Mathematics 5, 69 (19 pages).
[5] Bengfort, M., Siekmann, I., Malchow, H. (2018). Invasive competition with Fokker-Planck
di usion and noise. Ecological Complexity 34, 134-13.
[6] Morisita, M. (1971). Measuring of habitat value by the \environmental density" method. In:
Spatial patterns and statistical distributions (Patil, C.D., Pielou, E.C., Waters, W.E., eds.),
Statistical Ecology, vol. 1, pp. 379-401. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.
[7] N. Shigesada, N., Kawasaki, K., Teramoto, E. (1979). Spatial segregation of interacting species.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 79, 83-99.