Tuesday Seminar on Topology

Seminar information archive ~04/15Next seminarFuture seminars 04/16~

Date, time & place Tuesday 17:00 - 18:30 056Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Organizer(s) KAWAZUMI Nariya, KITAYAMA Takahiro, SAKASAI Takuya

Seminar information archive


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Anton Zeitlin (Louisiana State University)
Homotopy Gerstenhaber algebras, Courant algebroids, and Field Equations (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
I will talk about the underlying homotopical structures within field equations, which emerge in string theory as conformal invariance conditions for sigma models. I will show how these, often hidden, structures emerge from the homotopy Gerstenhaber algebra associated to vertex and Courant algebroids, thus making all such equations the natural objects within vertex algebra theory.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Marco De Renzi (Waseda University)
$2+1$-TQFTs from non-semisimple modular categories (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
Non-semisimple constructions have substantially generalized the standard approach of Witten, Reshetikhin, and Turaev to quantum topology, producing powerful invariants and TQFTs with unprecedented properties. We will explain how to use the theory of modified traces to renormalize Lyubashenko’s closed 3-manifold invariants coming from finite twist non-degenerate unimodular ribbon categories. Under the additional assumption of factorizability, our renormalized invariants extend to $2+1$-TQFTs, unlike Lyubashenko’s original ones. This general framework encompasses important examples of non-semisimple modular categories which were left out of previous non-semisimple TQFT constructions.

Based on a joint work with Azat Gainutdinov, Nathan Geer, Bertrand Patureau, and Ingo Runkel.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Ramón Barral Lijó (Ritsumeikan University)
The smooth Gromov space and the realization problem (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
The n-dimensional smooth Gromov space consists of the pointed isometry classes of complete Riemannian n-manifolds. In this talk we will present the definition and basic properties of this space as well as two different applications: The first addresses the following classical problem in foliation theory.

Realization problem: what kind of manifolds can be leaves of compact foliations?

Our joint work with Álvarez López has produced the following solution in the context of foliated spaces.

Theorem. Every Riemannian manifold of bounded geometry is a leaf in a compact foliated space X endowed with a metric tensor. Moreover, we can assume that X has trivial holonomy and is transversely Cantor.

The second application is the recent research by Abert and Biringer on the subject of unimodular random Riemannian manifolds.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Kiyonori Gomi (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Magnitude homology of geodesic space (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
Magnitude is an invariant which counts `effective number of points' on a metric space. Its categorification is magnitude homology. This notion is first formulated for metric spaces associated to simple graphs by Hepworth and Willerton, and then for any metric spaces by Leinster and Shulman. The definition of the magnitude homology is easy, but its calculation is rather difficult. For example, the magnitude homology of the circle with geodesic metric was known partially. In my talk, I will explain my result that fully determines the magnitude homology of any geodesic metric space subject to a certain non-branching assumption. In this result, the magnitude homology is described in terms of geodesics. Complete and connected Riemannian manifolds are examples of the geodesic metric spaces satisfying the assumption.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Chung-Jun Tsai (National Taiwan University)
Strong stability of minimal submanifolds (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
It is well known that the distance function to a totally geodesic submanifold of a negatively curved ambient manifold is a convex function. One can identify a strong stability condition on minimal submanifolds that generalizes the above scenario. Besides a strong local uniqueness property, a strongly stable minimal submanifold is also Lipschitz stable under the mean curvature flow. We will also discuss some famous local (complete, non-compact) models. This is based on a joint work with Mu-Tao Wang.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Gwénaël Massuyeau (Université de Bourgogne)
Generalized Dehn twists on surfaces and surgeries in 3-manifolds (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
(Joint work with Yusuke Kuno.) Given an oriented surface S and a simple closed curve C in S, the "Dehn twist" along C is the homeomorphism of S defined by "twisting" S around C by a full twist. If the curve C is not simple, this transformation of S does not make sense anymore, but one can consider two possible generalizations: one possibility is to use the homotopy intersection form of S to "simulate" the action of a Dehn twist on the (Malcev completion of) the fundamental group of S; another possibility is to view C as a curve on the top boundary of the cylinder S×[0,1], to push it arbitrarily into the interior so as to obtain, by surgery along the resulting knot, a new 3-manifold. In this talk, we will relate two those possible generalizations of a Dehn twist and we will give explicit formulas using a "symplectic expansion" of the fundamental group of S.


17:30-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Masaki Tsukamoto (Kyushu University)
How can we generalize hyperbolic dynamics to group actions? (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
Hyperbolicity is one of the most fundamental concepts in the study of dynamical systems. It provides rich (expansive and positive entropy) and yet controllable (stable and having some nice measures) dynamical systems. Then, can we generalize this to group actions?

A naive approach seems difficult. For example, suppose $Z^2$ smoothly acts on a finite dimensional compact manifold. Then it is easy to see that its entropy is zero. In other words, there is no rich $Z^2$-actions in the ordinary finite dimensional world. So we must go to infinite dimension. But what kind structure can we expect in the infinite dimensional world?

The purpose of this talk is to explain that mean dimension seems to play an important role in such a research direction. In particular, we explain the following principle :

If $Z^k$ acts on a space $X$ with some hyperbolicity, then we can control the mean dimension of the sub-action of any rank $(k-1)$ subgroup $G$ of $Z^k$.

This talk is based on the joint works with Tom Meyerovitch and Mao Shinoda.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Jun Murakami (Waseda University)
Quantized SL(2) representations of knot groups (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
Let K be a knot and G be a group. The representation space of K for the group G means the space of homomorphisms from the knot group to G and is defined by using the group ring C[G], where C[G] is the ring of functions on G and has a commutative Hopf algebra structure. This construction can be generalized to any commutative Hopf algebras.

In this talk, we extend this construction to any braided Hopf algebras with braided commutativity. A typical example is BSL(2), which is the braided SL(2) introduced by S. Majid. Applying the above construction to BSL(2), we get the space of BSL(2) representations, which provides a quantization of SL(2) representations of a knot. This is joint work with Roloand van der Veen.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Kimihiko Motegi (Nihon University)
Seifert vs. slice genera of knots in twist families and a characterization of braid axes (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
Twisting a knot $K$ in $S^3$ along a disjoint unknot $c$ produces a twist family of knots $\{K_n\}$ indexed by the integers. Comparing the behaviors of the Seifert genus $g(K_n)$ and the slice genus $g_4(K_n)$ under twistings, we prove that if $g(K_n) - g_4(K_n) < C$ for some constant $C$ for infinitely many integers $n > 0$ or $g(K_n) / g_4(K_n)$ limits to $1$, then the winding number of $K$ about $c$ equals either zero or the wrapping number. As a key application, if $\{K_n\}$ or the mirror twist family $\{\overline{K_n}\}$ contains infinitely many tight fibered knots, then the latter must occur. This leads to the characterization that $c$ is a braid axis of $K$ if and only if both $\{K_n\}$ and $\{\overline{K_n}\}$ each contain infinitely many tight fibered knots. We also give a necessary and sufficient condition for $\{K_n\}$ to contain infinitely many L-space knots, and apply the characterization to prove that satellite L-space knots have braided patterns, which answers a question of both Baker-Moore and Hom in the positive. This result also implies an absence of essential Conway spheres for satellite L-space knots, which gives a partial answer to a conjecture of Lidman-Moore.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Florent Schaffhauser (Université de Strasbourg)
Mod 2 cohomology of moduli stacks of real vector bundles (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
The rational cohomology ring of the moduli stack of holomorphic vector bundles of fixed rank and degree over a compact Riemann surface was studied by Atiyah and Bott using tools of differential geometry and algebraic topology: they found generators of that ring and computed its Poincaré series. In joint work with Chiu-Chu Melissa Liu, we study in a similar way the mod 2 cohomology ring of the moduli stack of real vector bundles of fixed topological type over a compact Riemann surface with real structure. The goal of the talk is to explain the principle of that computation, emphasizing the analogies and differences between the real and complex cases, and discuss applications of the method. In particular, we provide explicit generators of mod 2 cohomology rings of moduli stacks of vector bundles over a real algebraic curve.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Shun Wakatsuki (The University of Tokyo)
Brane coproducts and their applications (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
The loop coproduct is a coproduct on the homology of the free loop space of a Poincaré duality space (or more generally a Gorenstein space). In this talk, I will introduce two kinds of brane coproducts which are generalizations of the loop coproduct to the homology of a sphere space (i.e. the mapping space from a sphere). Their constructions are based on the finiteness of the dimensions of mapping spaces in some sense. As an application, I will show the vanishing of some cup products on sphere spaces by comparing these two brane coproducts. This gives a generalization of a result of Menichi for the case of free loop spaces.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Tian-Jun Li (University of Minnesota)
Geometry of symplectic log Calabi-Yau surfaces (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
This is a survey on the geometry of symplectic log Calabi-Yau surfaces, which are the symplectic analogues of Looijenga pairs. We address the classification up to symplectic deformation, the relations between symplectic circular sequences and anti-canonical sequences, contact trichotomy, and symplectic fillings. This is a joint work with Cheuk Yu Mak.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Masaki Taniguchi (The University of Tokyo)
Filtered instanton homology and the homology cobordism group (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
We give a new family of real-valued invariants {r_s} of oriented homology 3-spheres. The invariants are defined by using some filtered version of instanton Floer homology. The invariants are closely related to the existence of solutions to ASD equations on Y×R for a given homology sphere Y. We show some properties of {r_s} containing a connected sum formula and a negative definite inequality. As applications of such properties of {r_s}, we obtain several new results on the homology cobordism group and the knot concordance group. As one of such results, we show that if the 1-surgery of a knot has the Froyshov invariant negative, then all positive 1/n-surgeries of the knot are linearly independent in the homology cobordism group. This theorem gives a generalization of the theorem shown by Furuta and Fintushel-Stern in ’90. Moreover, we estimate the values of {r_s} for a hyperbolic manifold Y with an error of at most 10^{-50}. It seems the values are irrational. If the values are irrational, we can conclude that the homology cobordism group is not generated by Seifert homology spheres. This is joint work with Yuta Nozaki and Kouki Sato.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Mizuki Fukuda (Tokyo Gakugei University)
Gluck twist on branched twist spins (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
A branched twist spin is an embedded two sphere in the four sphere and it is defined as the set of singular points of a circle action on the four sphere. Gluck showed that the set of isotopy classes of diffeomorphisms on $S^1 \times S^2$ is isomorphic to $Z_2$, and an operation of removing a neighborhood of 2-knot from the four sphere and regluing it by the generator of $Z_2$ is called a Gluck twist. It is known by Pao that the Gluck twist along a branched twist spin does not change the four sphere. In this talk, we give an another proof of Pao’s result by using a decomposition of $S^4$ associated with the circle action, and we show that the set of branched twist spins does not change by the Gluck twist.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
R. Inanc Baykur (University of Massachusetts)
Exotic four-manifolds via positive factorizations (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
We will discuss several new ideas and techniques for producing positive Dehn twist factorizations of surface mapping classes, which yield novel constructions of various interesting four-manifolds, such as symplectic Calabi-Yau surfaces and exotic rational surfaces, via Lefschetz pencils.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Maria de los Angeles Guevara (Osaka City University)
On the dealternating number and the alternation number (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
Links can be divided into alternating and non-alternating depending on if they possess an alternating diagram or not. After the proof of the Tait flype conjecture on alternating links, it became an important question to ask how a non-alternating link is “close to” alternating links. The dealternating and alternation numbers, which are invariants introduced by C. Adams et al. and A. Kawauchi, respectively, can deal with this question. By definitions, for any link, its alternation number is less than or equal to its dealternating number. It is known that in general the equality does not hold. However, in general, it is not easy to show a gap between these invariants. In this seminar, we will show some results regarding these invariants. In particular, for each pair of positive integers, we will construct infinitely many knots, which have dealternating and alternation numbers determined for these integers. Therefore, an arbitrary gap between the values of these invariants will be obtained.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
J. Scott Carter (University of South Alabama, Osaka City University)
Diagrammatic Algebra (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
Three main ideas will be explored. First, a higher dimensional category (a category that has arrows, double arrows, triple arrows, and quadruple arrows) that is based upon the axioms of a Frobenius algebra will be outlined. Then these structures will be promoted into one higher dimension so that braiding can be introduced. Second, relationships between braiding and multiplication will be studied from a homological perspective. Third, the next order relations will be used to formulate a system of abstract tensor equations that are analogous to the Yang-Baxter relation. In this way, a broad outline of the notion of diagrammatic algebra will be presented.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Christine Vespa (Université de Strasbourg)
Higher Hochschild homology as a functor (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
Higher Hochschild homology generalizes classical Hochschild homology for rings. Recently, Turchin and Willwacher computed higher Hochschild homology of a finite wedge of circles with coefficients in the Loday functor associated to the ring of dual numbers over the rationals. In particular, they obtained linear representations of the groups Out(F_n) which do not factorize through GL(n,Z).

In this talk, I will begin by recalling what is Hochschild homology and higher Hochschild homology. Then I will explain how viewing higher Hochschild homology of a finite wedge of circles as a functor on the category of free groups provides a conceptual framework which allows powerful tools such as exponential functors and polynomial functors to be used. In particular, this allows the generalization of the results of Turchin and Willwacher; this gives rise to new linear representations of Out(F_n) which do not factorize through GL(n,Z).

(This is joint work with Geoffrey Powell.)


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Ken’ichi Ohshika (Gakushuin University)
Thurston’s bounded image theorem (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
The bounded image theorem by Thurston constitutes an important step in the proof of his unifomisation theorem for Haken manifolds. Thurston’s original argument was never published and has been unknown up to now. It has turned out a weaker form of this theorem is enough for the proof, and books by Kappovich and by Otal use this weaker version. In this talk, I will show how to prove Thurston’s original version making use of more recent technology. This is joint work with Cyril Lecuire.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Hiraku Nakajima (Kavli IPMU, The University of Tokyo)
Coulomb branches of 3d SUSY gauge theories (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
I will give an introduction to a mathematical definition of Coulomb branches of 3-dimensional SUSY gauge theories, given by my joint work with Braverman and Finkelberg. I will emphasize on the role of hypothetical 3d TQFT associated with gauge theories.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Jongil Park (Seoul National University)
A topological interpretation of symplectic fillings of a normal surface singularity (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
One of active research areas in symplectic 4-manifolds is to classify symplectic fillings of certain 3-manifolds equipped with a contact structure.
Among them, people have long studied symplectic fillings of the link of a normal surface singularity. Note that the link of a normal surface singularity carries a canonical contact structure which is also known as the Milnor fillable contact structure.

In this talk, I’d like to investigate a topological surgery description for minimal symplectic fillings of the link of quotient surface singularities and weighted homogeneous surface singularities with a canonical contact structure. Explicitly, I’ll show that every minimal symplectic filling of the link of quotient surface singularities and weighted homogeneous surface singularities satisfying certain conditions can be obtained by a sequence of rational blowdowns from the minimal resolution of the corresponding surface singularity. This is joint work with Hakho Choi.


17:00-18:30   Room #123 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Florian Naef (Université de Genève)
On a moduli space interpretation of the Turaev cobracket (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
Given an oriented surface, Goldman defines a Lie bracket on the vector space spanned by free homotopy classes of loops in terms of intersections. This Lie bracket is the universal version of the Atiyah-Bott Poisson structure on the moduli space of flat connections. Using self-intersections Turaev defines a Lie cobracket on loops. We give a possible interpretation of this structure on moduli spaces of flat connections in the form of a natural BV operator on the moduli space of flat connection with values in a super Lie algebra equipped with an odd pairing. This is joint work with A. Alekseev, J. Pulmann and P. Ševera.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Michael Hutchings (University of California, Berkeley)
Cube capacities (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
We define a new series of symplectic capacities using equivariant symplectic homology. These capacities are conjecturally equal to the Ekeland-Hofer capacities, but can be computed in many more examples. In particular, we use these capacities to find many examples of symplectic embeddings of cubes where the cube is as large as possible. This is joint work with Jean Gutt.


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Anastasiia Tsvietkova (Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Rutgers University)
Representations of knot groups (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
We describe a new method of producing equations for the representation variety of a knot group into (P)SL(2,C). Unlike known methods, this does not involve any polyhedral decomposition or triangulation of the link complement, and uses only a link diagram satisfying a few mild restrictions. This results in a simple algorithm that can often be performed by hand, and in many cases, for an infinite family of knots at once. This is a joint work with Kathleen Peterson (Florida State University).


17:00-18:30   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Yusuke Kuno (Tsuda University)
Generalized Dehn twists on surfaces and homology cylinders (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
This is a joint work with Gwénaël Massuyeau (University of Burgundy). Lickorish's trick describes Dehn twists along simple closed curves on an oriented surface in terms of surgery of 3-manifolds. We discuss one possible generalization of this description to the situation where the curve under consideration may have self-intersections. Our result generalizes previously known computations related to the Johnson homomorphisms for the mapping class groups and for homology cylinders. In particular, we obtain an alternative and direct proof of the surjectivity of the Johnson homomorphisms for homology cylinders, which was proved by Garoufalidis-Levine and Habegger.

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