Tuesday Seminar on Topology

Seminar information archive ~04/19Next seminarFuture seminars 04/20~

Date, time & place Tuesday 17:00 - 18:30 056Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Organizer(s) KAWAZUMI Nariya, KITAYAMA Takahiro, SAKASAI Takuya

Seminar information archive


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Yusuke Kuno (Tsuda College)
A generalization of Dehn twists (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
We introduce a generalization
of Dehn twists for loops which are not
necessarily simple loops on an oriented surface.
Our generalization is an element of a certain
enlargement of the mapping class group of the surface.
A natural question is whether a generalized Dehn twist is
in the mapping class group. We show some results related to this question.
This talk is partially based on a joint work
with Nariya Kawazumi (Univ. Tokyo).


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Inasa Nakamura (Gakushuin University, JSPS)
Triple linking numbers and triple point numbers
of torus-covering $T^2$-links
[ Abstract ]
The triple linking number of an oriented surface link was defined as an
analogical notion of the linking number of a classical link. A
torus-covering $T^2$-link $\\mathcal{S}_m(a,b)$ is a surface link in the
form of an unbranched covering over the standard torus, determined from
two commutative $m$-braids $a$ and $b$.
In this talk, we consider $\\mathcal{S}_m(a,b)$ when $a$, $b$ are pure
$m$-braids ($m \\geq 3$), which is a surface link with $m$-components. We
present the triple linking number of $\\mathcal{S}_m(a,b)$ by using the
linking numbers of the closures of $a$ and $b$. This gives a lower bound
of the triple point number. In some cases, we can determine the triple
point numbers, each of which is a multiple of four.


17:10-18:10   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Hiroshi Iritani (Kyoto University)
Gamma Integral Structure in Gromov-Witten theory (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
The quantum cohomology of a symplectic
manifold undelies a certain integral local system
defined by the Gamma characteristic class.
This local system originates from the natural integral
local sysmem on the B-side under mirror symmetry.
In this talk, I will explain its relationships to the problem
of analytic continuation of Gromov-Witten theoy (potentials),
including crepant resolution conjecture, LG/CY correspondence,
modularity in higher genus theory.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Tadashi Ishibe (The University of Tokyo, JSPS)
Infinite examples of non-Garside monoids having fundamental elements (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
The Garside group, as a generalization of Artin groups,
is defined as the group of fractions of a Garside monoid.
To understand the elliptic Artin groups, which are the fundamental
groups of the complement of discriminant divisors of the semi-versal
deformation of the simply elliptic singularities E_6~, E_7~ and E_8~,
we need to consider another generalization of Artin groups.
In this talk, we will study the presentations of fundamental groups
of the complement of complexified real affine line arrangements
and consider the associated monoids.
It turns out that, in some cases, they are not Garside monoids.
Nevertheless, we will show that they satisfy the cancellation condition
and carry certain particular elements similar to the fundamental elements
in Artin monoids.
As a result, we will show that the word problem can be solved
and the center of them are determined.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Hisashi Kasuya (The University of Tokyo)
Minimal models, formality and hard Lefschetz property of
solvmanifolds with local systems (JAPANESE)


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Dylan Thurston (Columbia University)
Combinatorial Heegaard Floer homology (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
Heegaard Floer homology is a powerful invariant of 3- and 4-manifolds.
In 4 dimensions, Heegaard Floer homology (together with the
Seiberg-Witten and Donaldson equations, which are conjecturally
equivalent), provides essentially the only technique for
distinguishing smooth 4-manifolds. In 3 dimensions, it provides much
geometric information, like the simplest representatives of a given
homology class.

In this talk we will focus on recent progress in making Heegaard Floer
homology more computable, including a complete algorithm for computing
it for knots.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Eriko Hironaka (Florida State University)
Pseudo-Anosov mapping classes with small dilatation (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
A mapping class is a homeomorphism of an oriented surface
to itself modulo isotopy. It is pseudo-Anosov if the lengths of essential
simple closed curves under iterations of the map have exponential growth
rate. The growth rate, an algebraic integer of degree bounded with
respect to the topology of the surface, is called the dilatation of the
mapping class. In this talk we will discuss the minimization problem
for dilatations of pseudo-Anosov mapping classes, and give two general
constructions of pseudo-Anosov mapping classes with small dilatation.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Takuya Sakasai (The University of Tokyo)
On homology of symplectic derivation Lie algebras of
the free associative algebra and the free Lie algebra (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
We discuss homology of symplectic derivation Lie algebras of
the free associative algebra and the free Lie algebra
with particular stress on their abelianizations (degree 1 part).
Then, by using a theorem of Kontsevich,
we give some applications to rational cohomology of the moduli spaces of
Riemann surfaces and metric graphs.
This is a joint work with Shigeyuki Morita and Masaaki Suzuki.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Masato Mimura (The University of Tokyo)
Property (TT)/T and homomorphism superrigidity into mapping class groups (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
Mapping class groups (MCG's), of compact oriented surfaces (possibly
with punctures), have many mysterious features: they behave not only
like higher rank lattices (namely, irreducible lattices in higher rank
algebraic groups); but also like rank one lattices. The following
theorem, the Farb--Kaimanovich--Masur superrigidity, states a rank one
phenomenon for MCG's: "every group homomorphism from higher rank
lattices (such as SL(3,Z) and cocompact lattices in SL(3,R)) into
MCG's has finite image."

In this talk, we show a generalization of the superrigidity above, to
the case where higher rank lattices are replaced with some
(non-arithmetic) matrix groups over general rings. Our main example of
such groups is called the "universal lattice", that is, the special
linear group over commutative finitely generated polynomial rings over
integers, (such as SL(3,Z[x])). To prove this, we introduce the notion
of "property (TT)/T" for groups, which is a strengthening of Kazhdan's
property (T).

We will explain these properties and relations to ordinary and bounded
cohomology of groups (with twisted unitary coefficients); and outline
the proof of our result.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Takao Satoh (Tokyo University of Science)
On the Johnson cokernels of the mapping class group of a surface (joint work with Naoya Enomoto) (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
In general, the Johnson homomorphisms of the mapping class group of a surface are used to investigate graded quotients of the Johnson filtration of the mapping class group. These graded quotients are considered as a sequence of approximations of the Torelli group. Now, there is a broad range of remarkable results for the Johnson homomorphisms.
In this talk, we concentrate our focus on the cokernels of the Johnson homomorphisms of the mapping class group. By a work of Shigeyuki Morita and Hiroaki Nakamura, it is known that an Sp-irreducible module [k] appears in the cokernel of the k-th Johnson homomorphism with multiplicity one if k=2m+1 for any positive integer m. In general, however, to determine Sp-structure of the cokernel is quite a difficult preblem.
Our goal is to show that we have detected new irreducible components in the cokernels. More precisely, we will show that there appears an Sp-irreducible module [1^k] in the cokernel of the k-th Johnson homomorphism with multiplicity one if k=4m+1 for any positive integer m.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Yoshihiko Mitsumatsu (Chuo University)
Leafwise symplectic structures on Lawson's Foliation on the 5-sphere (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
We are going to show that Lawson's foliation on the 5-sphere
admits a smooth leafwise symplectic sturcture. Historically, Lawson's
foliation is the first one among foliations of codimension one which are
constructed on the 5-sphere. It is obtained by modifying the Milnor
fibration associated with the Fermat type cubic polynominal in three
Alberto Verjovsky proposed a question whether if the Lawson's
foliation or slighty modified ones admit a leafwise smooth symplectic
structure and/or a leafwise complex structure. As Lawson's one has a
Kodaira-Thurston nil 4-manifold as a compact leaf, the question can not
be solved simultaneously both for the symplectic and the complex cases.
The main part of the construction is to show that the Fermat type
cubic surface admits an `end-periodic' symplectic structure, while the
natural one as an affine surface is conic at the end. Even though for
the other two families of the simple elliptic hypersurface singularities
almost the same construction works, at present, it seems very limited
where a Stein manifold admits an end-periodic symplectic structure. If
the time allows, we also discuss the existence of such structures on
globally convex symplectic manifolds.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Mircea Voineagu (IPMU, The University of Tokyo)
Remarks on filtrations of the singular homology of real varieties. (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
We discuss various conjectures about filtrations on the singular homology of real and complex varieties. We prove that a conjecture relating niveau filtration on Borel-Moore homology of real varieties and the image of generalized cycle maps from reduced Lawson homology is false. In the end, we discuss a certain decomposition of Borel-Haeflinger cycle map. This is a joint work with J.Heller.


17:00-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Athanase Papadopoulos (IRMA, Univ. de Strasbourg)
Mapping class group actions (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
I will describe and present some rigidity results on mapping
class group actions on spaces of foliations on surfaces, equipped with various topologies.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Toshitake Kohno (The University of Tokyo)
Quantum and homological representations of braid groups (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
Homological representations of braid groups are defined as
the action of homeomorphisms of a punctured disk on
the homology of an abelian covering of its configuration space.
These representations were extensively studied by Lawrence,
Krammer and Bigelow. In this talk we show that specializations
of the homological representations of braid groups
are equivalent to the monodromy of the KZ equation with
values in the space of null vectors in the tensor product
of Verma modules when the parameters are generic.
To prove this we use representations of the solutions of the
KZ equation by hypergeometric integrals due to Schechtman,
Varchenko and others.

In the case of special parameters these representations
are extended to quantum representations of mapping
class groups. We describe the images of such representations
and show that the images of any Johnson subgroups
contain non-abelian free groups if the genus and the
level are sufficiently large. The last part is a joint
work with Louis Funar.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Francois Laudenbach (Univ. de Nantes)
Singular codimension-one foliations
and twisted open books in dimension 3.
(joint work with G. Meigniez)
[ Abstract ]
The allowed singularities are those of functions.
According to A. Haefliger (1958),
such structures on manifolds, called $\\Gamma_1$-structures,
are objects of a cohomological
theory with a classifying space $B\\Gamma_1$.
The problem of cancelling the singularities
(or regularization problem)
arise naturally.
For a closed manifold, it was solved by W.Thurston in a famous paper
(1976), with a proof relying on Mather's isomorphism (1971):
Diff$^\\infty(\\mathbb R)$ as a discrete group has the same homology
as the based loop space
$\\Omega B\\Gamma_1^+$.
For further extension to contact geometry, it is necessary
to solve the regularization problem
without using Mather's isomorphism.
That is what we have done in dimension 3. Our result is the following.

{\\it Every $\\Gamma_1$-structure $\\xi$ on a 3-manifold $M$ whose
normal bundle
embeds into the tangent bundle to $M$ is $\\Gamma_1$-homotopic
to a regular foliation
carried by a (possibily twisted) open book.}

The proof is elementary and relies on the dynamics of a (twisted)
pseudo-gradient of $\\xi$.

All the objects will be defined in the talk, in particular the notion
of twisted open book which is a central object in the reported paper.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Shoji Yokura (Kagoshima University )
Fiberwise bordism groups and related topics (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
We have recently introduced the notion of fiberwise bordism. In this talk, after a quick review of some of the classical (co)bordism theories, we will explain motivations of considering fiberwise bordism and some results and connections with other known works, such as M. Kreck's bordism groups of orientation preserving diffeomorphisms and Emerson-Meyer's bivariant K-theory etc. An essential motivation is our recent work towards constructing a bivariant-theoretic analogue (in the sense of Fulton-MacPherson) of Levine-Morel's or Levine-Pandharipande's algebraic cobordism.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Kiyoshi Takeuchi (University of Tsukuba)
Motivic Milnor fibers and Jordan normal forms of monodromies (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
We introduce a method to calculate the equivariant
Hodge-Deligne numbers of toric hypersurfaces.
Then we apply it to motivic Milnor
fibers introduced by Denef-Loeser and study the Jordan
normal forms of the local and global monodromies
of polynomials maps in various situations.
Especially we focus our attention on monodromies
at infinity studied by many people. The results will be
explicitly described by the ``convexity" of
the Newton polyhedra of polynomials. This is a joint work
with Y. Matsui and A. Esterov.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Andrei Pajitnov (Univ. de Nantes, Univ. of Tokyo)
Circle-valued Morse theory for complex hyperplane arrangements (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
Let A be a complex hyperplane arrangement
in an n-dimensional complex vector space V.
Denote by H the union of the hyperplanes
and by M the complement to H in V.

We develop the real-valued and circle-valued Morse
theory on M. We prove that if A is essential then
M has the homotopy type of a space
obtained from a finite n-dimensional
CW complex fibered over a circle,
by attaching several cells of dimension n.

We compute the Novikov homology of M and show
that its structure is similar to the
homology with generic local coefficients:
it vanishes for all dimensions except n.

This is a joint work with Toshitake Kohno.


17:00-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Gael Meigniez (Univ. de Bretagne-Sud, Chuo Univ.)
Making foliations of codimension one,
thirty years after Thurston's works
[ Abstract ]
In 1976 Thurston proved that every closed manifold M whose
Euler characteristic is null carries a smooth foliation F of codimension
one. He actually established a h-principle allowing the regularization of
Haefliger structures through homotopy. I shall give some accounts of a new,
simpler proof of Thurston's result, not using Mather's homology equivalence; and also show that this proof allows to make F have dense leaves if dim M is at least 4. The emphasis will be put on the high dimensions.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Yoshifumi Matsuda (The University of Tokyo)
Relatively quasiconvex subgroups of relatively hyperbolic groups (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
Relative hyperbolicity of groups was introduced by Gromov as a
generalization of word hyperbolicity. Motivating examples of relatively
hyperbolic groups are fundamental groups of noncompact complete
hyperbolic manifolds of finite volume. The class of relatively
quasiconvex subgroups of a realtively hyperbolic group is defined as a
genaralization of that of quasicovex subgroups of a word hyperbolic
group. The notion of hyperbolically embedded subgroups of a relatively
hyperbolic group was introduced by Osin and such groups are
characterized as relatively quasiconvex subgroups with additional
algebraic properties. In this talk I will present an introduction to
relatively quasiconvex subgroups and discuss recent joint work with Shin
-ichi Oguni and Saeko Yamagata on hyperbolically embedded subgroups.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Clara Loeh (Univ. Regensburg)
Functorial semi-norms on singular homology (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
Functorial semi-norms on singular homology add metric information to
homology classes that is compatible with continuous maps. In particular,
functorial semi-norms give rise to degree theorems for certain classes
of manifolds; an invariant fitting into this context is Gromov's
simplicial volume. On the other hand, knowledge about mapping degrees
allows to construct functorial semi-norms with interesting properties;
for example, so-called inflexible simply connected manifolds give rise
to functorial semi-norms that are non-trivial on certain simply connected


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Keiko Kawamuro (University of Iowa)
The self linking number and planar open book decomposition (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
I will show a self linking number formula, in language of
braids, for transverse knots in contact manifolds that admit planar
open book decompositions. Our formula extends the Bennequin's for
the standar contact 3-sphere.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Catherine Oikonomides (The University of Tokyo, JSPS)
The C*-algebra of codimension one foliations which
are almost without holonomy (ENGLISH)
[ Abstract ]
Foliation C*-algebras have been defined abstractly by Alain Connes,
in the 1980s, as part of the theory of Noncommutative Geometry.
However, very few concrete examples of foliation C*-algebras
have been studied until now.
In this talk, we want to explain how to compute
the K-theory of the C*-algebra of codimension
one foliations which are "almost without holonomy",
meaning that the holonomy of all the noncompact leaves
of the foliation is trivial. Such foliations have a fairly
simple geometrical structure, which is well known thanks
to theorems by Imanishi, Hector and others. We will give some
concrete examples on 3-manifolds, in particular the 3-sphere
with the Reeb foliation, and also some slighty more
complicated examples.


16:30-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Masahiro Futaki (The University of Tokyo)
On a Sebastiani-Thom theorem for directed Fukaya categories (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
The directed Fukaya category defined by Seidel is a "
categorification" of the Milnor lattice of hypersurface singularities.
Sebastiani-Thom showed that the Milnor lattice and its monodromy behave
as tensor product for the sum of singularities. A directed Fukaya
category version of this theorem was conjectured by Auroux-Katzarkov-
Orlov (and checked for the Landau-Ginzburg mirror of P^1 \\times P^1). In
this talk I introduce the directed Fukaya category and show that a
Sebastiani-Thom type splitting holds in the case that one of the
potential is of complex dimension 1.


17:00-18:00   Room #056 (Graduate School of Math. Sci. Bldg.)
Toshiki Mabuchi (Osaka University)
Donaldson-Tian-Yau's Conjecture (JAPANESE)
[ Abstract ]
For polarized algebraic manifolds, the concept of K-stability
introduced by Tian and Donaldson is conjecturally strongly correlated
to the existence of constant scalar curvature metrics (or more
generally extremal K\\"ahler metrics) in the polarization class. This is
known as Donaldson-Tian-Yau's conjecture. Recently, a remarkable
progress has been made by many authors toward its solution. In this
talk, I'll discuss the topic mainly with emphasis on the existence
part of the conjecture.

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